Basic Knowledge:-

  1.   Who can do pearl culture?
    Any one interested in this activity can do it. It is for one and all. Teacher, Farmer,  Businessman, House wife, Student etc
    2.    What mussel species do I need for surgeries?In India, three species of commonly available freshwater mussels viz., Lamellidens marginalis, L. corrianus and Parreysia corrugata found to produce good quality pearls.
    3.    What do we insert in the mussels?
    Nucleus (Bead) is inserted in the mussels to get the desired shape of pearls
    4.    What is a nucleus and what it is made up of?
    A nucleus is a bead made up of shell powder which is made up from the dead mussels shell and mixed with a solution to give the desired shape.There are different types of nucleus like round, half round, designer nucleus (Ganesha, sai baba, 786, Allah, crucifix or cross and lots more), teardrop, oval and so on.
    5.    What is the culture process?
    Freshwater pearl culture operation involves six major steps sequentially viz., collection of mussels, pre-operative conditioning, surgery, post-operative care, pond culture and harvesting of pearls
    6.    Where can all I carry out pearl culture?
    Pearl culture can be done in a pond (Pearl Culture is a Freshwater Pearl Culture is a parallel activity to Fish Farming and Fresh water Aquaculture and hence will only compliment the activities ongoing at your farm), Lakes, Rivers, Dams. Basically anyplace where you can find mussels, you can grow pearls
    7.    Do I need any educational qualification to do pearl culture?
    NO! One does not need any degree or qualification to do pearl culture. It’s an activity that anyone with an interest in pearl culture can do it.

Technical Aspects:-

  1. What is a pearl made up of?
    A Pearl  is made up of calcium carbonate, organic matrix and water. In simple language, it means nacre which is the inner shining layer of shell called ‘mother of pearl layer’ as well.
    2.    What is the minimum size of pond needed to do pearl culture?
    Pearl culture can be done in any size for that matte. But if you are looking for commercial gains then its better one must go for a minimum one acre pond to get the desired profit.
    3.    What is the water quality that one must maintain to sustain mussels?
    Water required for pearl culture can be used from river, canals, dams etc basically where ever mussels are found or fishes sustain pearl culture can be done with that water. Technically speaking PH value of water must be should be around 7 to 8.
    4.    What is the feed I need to give mussels?
    Mussels don’t need any specific feed as such. They are filter feeders and hence live on algae and plankton’s in water. Lime in a particular quantity is good for mussels
    5. What are the climatic conditions required for pearl culture?
    The surgeries must be performed during winter. Thats the main criteria. The temperature can be anywhere between 25 degree to 28 degree. One must avoid performing surgeries in warm climate.

Requirement for Pearl Culture:-

  1. What are the requirements to carryout pearl culture?
    The requirement differs according to the size of the pond. But below mentioned are the A to Z list of things you will need.
    A. Fixed Cost (one time investment)
  • Operation shed (a place or room where surgeries can be performed)
  • Mussel holding tanks (ferro-cement/FRP tanks, or any kind of large container that can hold mussels before and after surgeries)
  • Culture units(PVC pipe and floats, bamboos, ropes – this is needed when we dump the shells in the pond,)
  • Surgical sets (set of tools needed to perform the surgeries. We provide surgical sets to our clients)
  • Furniture for surgical facilities (basic furniture like chair and table is needed to aid workers to perform surgeries)
B.Variable Costs
  • Pond lease value (in case if one doesn’t have pond then-then has to be taken on lease. But if you possess pounds then this expense will be excluded from your list)
  • Mussels(mussels need to be bought or caught from rivers, canals etc according to our requirement. One can also approach fish farmers as they possess lots in their ponds)
  • Pearl  nucleus (nucleus is a bead inserted in the mussels. We provide nucleus to our clients)
  • Skilled workers for implantation(this is one of the most important requirement. If your worker of not trained properly then the results can be different from expectation. So the cost of training is incurred. We train workers for our clients)
  • Wages (Money has to be paid to labor towards maintenance of the ponds and farm. If you already have an infrastructure then this expense will not be incurred)
  • Fertilizers, lime and other miscellaneous costs (If your pond is new and not used for fish farming the bringing it to the proper condition with algae and planktons and phytoplanktons is impotent. If you already posess a pond then maybe oyu will not incur this cost)
  • Post-harvest processing of pearls (generally bleaching, polishing, cutting pearl from the shell etc is done after pearls are harvested. It entirely depends on the client sometimes the natural product is demanded as it is.)
  1. What tools will my tool box contain?
    Below mentioned are ideal tools one requires for performing surgeries.
  • Shell opener
  • Graft cutter / Knife
  • Spatula
  • Incision knife
  • Nucleus carrier
  • Graft carrier
  • Forceps
  • Mussel Holder
  • Operation scalpel
  • Cell inserter
  1. How many shells in one acre?
    For one acre the number of shells can be anything between 20000 to 25000
    4.    What is the type of labour i will require?
    You will mainly require two types of labour
    One will be the skilled labour that will perform surgeries and other will be the one who would take care of the mussels and the pond. Skilled labour is used for one or two months depending on the implantations where as the other labours are used for thew long term.

Facts About Pearls:-

  1. What are the type of pearls?
Natural Pearl:– Its formation of nacre around the foreign body which came inside of a mollusk. The shape of the pearl depends on the original shape of the foreign body.
Artifical Pearl-  These are actually not a pearl, its just a solid body which appears in pearl shape which coated with synthetic material. 
Cultured Pearls:- Its just an interfere of man to insert foreign body inside the mollusk, Can be cultured anywhere everywhere in water. Thats how the word Pearl Culture is arrived.

2. What is a pearl made up of?
Pearl is a gem that is formed within the soft tissue of a shelled mollusk, such as an Oyster, Clam or Mussel.
– Chemically compositions of pearls.
– 82-86% aragonite calcium carbonate
– 10-14% organic matrix (conchiolin)
– 2-4%  water

How is a pearl valued?

The value of the pearl depends on the following factors.
Surface: cleaner the surface higher the value

Shape: the more round the shape, better value. However it depends on clients as to what shape they want as in foreign market barouque shaped pearls fetch good price as well.

Color: there are various tones of color available. However the Black Pearl fetches the highest price in the market.

Size: the bigger the size the higher the valu



What will the maintainance of the shells be after dumping in the pond?
The only maintainance needed is to check the mussels weekly and remove the dead mussels as they will harm the healthy mussels in the nets. And adding fertilisers or lime if required.

Where should I go For Traning:-

For trainning-